Amazon Elastic Container Registry (ECR) is a system designed to support storing and managing Docker and Open Container Initiative (OCI) images and OCI-compatible artifacts. ECR can act as a private container image repository, where you can store your own images, a public container image repository for managing publicly accessible images, and to manage access to other public image repositories. ECR also provides lifecycle policies, that allow you to manage the lifecycles of images within your repository, image scanning, so that you can identify any potential software vulnerabilities, and cross-region and cross-account image replication so that your images can be available wherever you need them.
As with the rest of AWS services, ECR is built on top of other services. For example, Amazon ECR stores container images in Amazon S3 buckets so that server-side encryption comes by default. Or, if needed, you can use server-side encryption with KMS keys stored in AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS), all of which you can configure as you create the registry. As you can likely guess, IAM manages access rights to the images, supporting everything from strict rules to anonymous access to support the concept of a public repository.
There are several different ways to create a repository. The first is through the ECR console by selecting the Create repository button. This will take you to the Create repository page as shown below:
Through this page you can set the Visibility settings, Image scan settings, and Encryption settings. There are two visibility settings, Private and Public. Private repositories are managed through permissions managed in IAM and are part of the AWS Free Tier, with 500 MB-month of storage for one year for your private repositories. Public repositories are openly visible and available for open pulls. Amazon ECR offers you 50 GB-month of always-free storage for your public repositories, and you can transfer 500 GB of data to the internet for free from a public repository each month anonymously (without using an AWS account.) If authenticating to a public repository on ECR, you can transfer 5 TB of data to the internet for free each month and you get unlimited bandwidth for free when transferring data from a public repository in ECR to any AWS compute resources in any region
Enabling Scan on push on means that every image that is uploaded to the repository will be scanned. This scanning is designed to help identify any software vulnerabilities in the uploaded image, and will automatically run every 24 hours, but turning this on will ensure that the image is checked before it can ever be used. The scanning is being done using the Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures (CVEs) database from the Clair project, outputting a list of scan findings.
Note: Clair is an open-source project that was created for the static analysis of vulnerabilities in application containers (currently including OCI and docker). The goal of the project is to enable a more transparent view of the security of container-based infrastructure – the project was named Clair after the French term which translates to clear, bright, or transparent.
The last section is Encryption settings. When this is enabled, as shown below, ECR will use AWS Key Management Service (KMS) to manage the encryption of the images stored in the repository, rather than the default encryption approach.
You can use either the default settings, where ECR creates a default key (with an alias of aws/ecr) or you can Customize encryption settings and either select a pre-existing key or create a new key that will be used for the encryption.
Other approaches for creating an ECR repo
Just as with all the other services that we have talked about so far, there is the UI-driven way to build an ECR like we just went through and then several other approaches to creating a repo.
You can create an ECR repository in the AWS CLI using the create-repository command as part of the ECR service.
C:\>aws ecr create-repository
You can control all of the basic repository settings through the CLI just as you can when creating the repository through the ECR console, including assigning encryption keys and defining the repository URI.
AWS Tools for PowerShell
And, as you probably aren’t too surprised to find out, you can also create an ECR repository using AWS Tools for PowerShell:
Just as with the CLI, you have the ability to fully configure the repository as you create it.
AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio
As well as using the AWS Toolkit for Visual Studio, although you must depend upon the extension’s built-in default values because the only thing that you can control through the AWS Explorer is the repository name as shown below. As you may notice, the AWS Explorer does not have its own node for ECR and instead puts the Repositories sub-node under the Amazon Elastic Container Service (ECS) node. This is a legacy from the past, before ECR really became its own service, but it is still an effective way to access and work with repositories in Visual Studio.
Once you create a repository in VS, going to the ECR console and reviewing the repository that was created will show you that it used the default settings, so it was a private repository with both “Scan on push” and “KMS encryption” disabled.
At this point, the easiest way to show how this will all work is to create an image and upload it into the repository. We will then be able to use this container image as we go through the various AWS container management services.
Note: You will not be able to complete many of these exercises with Docker already running on your machine. You will find download and installation instructions for Docker Desktop at https://www.docker.com/products/docker-desktop. Once you have Desktop installed you will be able to locally build and run container images.
We will start by creating a simple .NET ASP.NET Core sample web application in Visual Studio through File -> New Project and selecting the ASP.NET Core Web App (C#) project template. You then name your project and select where to store the source code. Once that is completed you will get a new screen that asks for additional information as shown below. The checkbox for Enable Docker defaults as unchecked, so make sure you check it and then select the Docker OS to use, which in this case is Linux.
This will create a simple solution that includes a Docker file as shown below:
If you look at the contents of that generated Docker file you will see that it is very similar to the Docker file that we went through earlier, containing the instructions to restore and build the application, publish the application, and then copy the published application bits to the final image, setting the ENTRYPOINT.
FROM mcr.microsoft.com/dotnet/aspnet:5.0 AS base WORKDIR /app EXPOSE 80 EXPOSE 443 FROM mcr.microsoft.com/dotnet/sdk:5.0 AS build WORKDIR /src COPY ["SampleContainer/SampleContainer.csproj", "SampleContainer/"] RUN dotnet restore "SampleContainer/SampleContainer.csproj" COPY . . WORKDIR "/src/SampleContainer" RUN dotnet build "SampleContainer.csproj" -c Release -o /app/build FROM build AS publish RUN dotnet publish "SampleContainer.csproj" -c Release -o /app/publish FROM base AS final WORKDIR /app COPY --from=publish /app/publish . ENTRYPOINT ["dotnet", "SampleContainer.dll"]
If you look at your build options in Visual Studio as shown below, you will see additional ones available for containers. The Docker choice, for example, will work through the Docker file and start the final container image within Docker and then connect the debugger to that container so that you can debug as usual.
The next step is to create the container image and persist it into the repository. To do so, right click the project name in the Visual Studio Solution Explorer and select Publish Container to AWS to bring up the Publish Container to AWS wizard as shown below.
The image above shows that the repository that we just created is selected as the repository for saving, and the Publish only the Docker image to Amazon Elastic Container Registry option in the Deployment Target was selected (these are not the default values for each of these options). Once you have this configured, click the Publish button. You’ll see the window in the wizard grind through a lot of processing, then a console window may pop up to show you the actual upload of the image, and then the wizard window will automatically close if successful.
Logging into Amazon ECR and going into the prodotnetonaws repository (the one we uploaded the image into), as shown below, will demonstrate that there is now an image available within the repository with a latest tag, just as configured in the wizard. You can click the icon with the Copy URI text to get the URL that you will use when working with this image. We recommend that you go ahead and do this at this point and paste it somewhere easy to find as that is the value you will use to access the image.
Now that you have a container image stored in the repository, we will look at how you can use it in the next article